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新视野大学英语第三版Book2-Unit 7 Women making a difference today全套讲义

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Unit 7 Women: making a difference today RART 1 UNDERSTANDING AND LEARNING Overview The unit aims at exploring a current social issue: gender roles, a topic that could spark a lot of debates and arguments. Text A gives students a big picture of a how women have played an important role at the management level, along with their challenges and frustrations. Text B portrays a happy full-time housewife who considers her job at home absolutely important. The implication of it is that the job at a housewife should be respected. The two articles are theme-bound since both relate the topic of the role played by women, though one is at work and the other at home. The writing style of the tow texts is very different as well. One is a featured article on female working styles by way of presenting various scenarios at work, blended with many direct speeches and present verb tenses such as says, report, agrees, proclaims, feels, pauses when referring to the past; the other is a narrative about the author‘s personal experience of being a housewife. Though the language used in both texts is somewhat casual, the tone of the first one is more serious and in a report style. Women‘s working style and way of thinking are clearly depicted, which will surely provoke an interesting debate on gender issues as a springboard for in-depth class discussion. Activities may revolve around the main theme of the unite: Should women stay home or work outside. Section A Women at the management level Background information Women leaders In today‘s economy, women are a strong force in the workplace. Gone are the days of men working outside and women staying at home. Women are filling the ranks in many professions and many top companies. Many of today‘s global business leader and powerful entrepreneurs are women. Indeed, women are increasingly working in upper management roles, serving as leader in a variety of settings. Interestingly, research says women behave more emotionally in certain work situations. Regardless of what the studies says, the data support the benefits of gender diversity at the workplace. So what does such diversity in the workplace mean? It means that it is beneficial to not only hire but also retain female employees. The text vividly unfolds how females are working in different business sectors at the management level. Detailed study of the text 1 when Monica applied for a job as an assistant in 1971, she was asked whether she would

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attorney. (para.1) administrative Meaning: Monica was asked if she would like to work for a male or a female lawyer when she applied for a managing job at a law firm in 1971. Administrative: a.relating to the work of managing a company or organization 行政的;管理的 Although administrative positions may pay more than teaching salaries, they often require more hours on the job. 虽然行政工作的薪金比教学工作的更多,但它们却往往需要更多的工作时 间。

Sentence structure NOTE ―would rather‖句型 1would rather 的意思是―宁愿;宁可;更;最好;还是…为好‖,后接动词原形,表示优先选 择的一种方式。

其否定形式是 would rather not do sth. would rather 没有人称和数的变化, 所有的人称一律用 would rather。

例如: If you/he would rather be alone, we‘ll all leave here. 如果你/他宁愿独自呆着,那我们会都离开 这儿。

would rather 后接从句时,从句中的谓语动词用一般过去时,表示希望或宁愿某人按某特定 的方式做某事,这个结构常常表达的是现在或将来的行为。

例如: I‘d rather you didn‘t make any comment on the issue for the time being. 我想目前你还是不要对 此事发表任何评论。

2‖I felt that a male-boss/female-employee relationship was more natural, needing no personal accommodation whatsoever.‖(para.1) Meaning: I felt that there was no need to compromise in a relationship between a male boss and a female employee since it was more natural. employee: n. [C] sb. Who is paid to work for sb. else 受雇者;雇员 knowing what an employee is looking for in a potential employee can help someone to prepare for an interview. 了解雇主在寻找什么样的潜在雇员可以帮助人们准备面试。

accommodation:n 1) 【sing.,U】(fml) a change in behavior or attitude that helps people work together or end a disagreement 迁就;通融;调和 The two sides failed to agree on every point, but they settled on an accommodation for their differences. 双方未能对所有的意见都达成一致,但对他们的分歧达成了和解。

1)[U] a place for sb. To stay, live, or work 住处;工作场所 Having decided to find an appropriate accommodation, we set about contacting all the rental agencies in the city. 我们决定要找一个合适的住处之后,就开始联络这个城市所有的租赁公 司。

3. But 20 years later, when she was asked the same question, she said, ‖I was pleasantly surprised that female bosses are much more accessible to their employees; they‘re much more sensitive and intimate with their employees.‖ (para.1) Meaning: However, when she was asked the same question 20 years later, she responded that it was a nice surprise to find out that female bosses had been much easier to approach, more understanding, and closer to their workers.

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Meaning beyond words: her answer was entirely different from what she had responded 20 yaers before. It can be assumed that she gained this particular feeling gradually. 4.Female bosses today are still finding they face subtle resistance. (para.2) Meaning beyond words: Female bosses today are still experiencing gender discrimination, though it may not always be obvious or noticeable. 5. There is still a segment of the population, both men and, surprisingly, women who report low tolerance for female bosses.(para.2) Meaning :A portion of people, men and, unexpectedly, even women state that they can hardly bear working with female bosses. Segment: n. [C] a part of sth. that is different from or affected differently from the whole in some way 部分;段;片 Black people constitute the poorest segment of society in the country.黑人在该国社会中构成了 最贫穷的阶层。

tolerance:n. 1) [U] Willingness to allow people to do, say, or believe what they want without criticizing or punishing them 忍受;容忍;宽容 Tolerance is the quality of allowing other people to say and do as they like, even if you do not agree with it or like it .宽容是一种素质,它允许其他人说和做他们喜欢的事,即使你不同意 或不喜欢。

2)[C,U] the degree to which sb. can suffer pain, difficulty, etc. without being harmed or damaged (对痛苦,困难等的)忍受程度,忍耐力 These students tend to have a poor tolerance for frustration and give up easily when takes become difficult. 这些学生往往对挫折的承受力差,在任务变得困难时会轻易放弃。

6. The growing presence of female bosses has also provoked two major questions that resolve around styles.Do men and women manage differently,and,if so,is that a good thing?(Para2) Meaning: With the number of female bosses increasing,two questions have been raised in terms of styles:Do men and women work differently?Are the differences good for management if there are any? 7. Monica is disposed to think so,on both counts.Now a 40-year-old mother of four,she is president of a public sector labor union with 45,000 members.(Para.3) Meaning: Monica, a 40-year-old mother of four children and president of a public sector labor union with 45,000 members, is inclined to look at these two points positively: Women do manage differently from men and that is a good thing. dispose :vt 1) (~sb. to / toward sth.)(fml.) make sb. more likely to particular or thoughts 使(某人)较倾 向于 The body releases a chemical that disposes you toward sleep. 体内释放出一种令人昏昏欲睡的 化学物质。

2) (~of) get rid of sth.,csp. Sth. that is difficult to get rid of 丢弃, 处理 (尤指难以处理的东西) Litter should be disposed of thoughtfully. 废弃物应该仔细的处理。

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disposed: a. likely to behave or think in a particular way 有… 倾向的 He was a man of good character and was not disposed to violence. 他人品很好,没有暴力倾向。

be disposed to do sth.: be willing to do sth. 愿意做某事;乐意做某事 His father was a large, comfortable-looking man who wasn‘t disposed to make a fuss. 他父亲各 自高,看上去很舒服,不想是会大惊小怪的人。

on both counts: in both ways 在两个方面 I thought he was a kind and honest person, but I was wrong on both counts. 我原以为他是个善 良,诚实的人,但这两点我都想错了。

sector: n. [C] a part of an area of activity. esp. of business, trade, etc. (尤指商业、 贸易等的)部门, 行业 In the financial sector, investors in banks and insurance companies both have lost a lot of money. 在金融行业,银行和保险公司的投资者都损失了很多钱。

Note ―A public sector labor union ‖(also public sector trade union) refers to a labor union which primarily represent the interests of employees within public sector (government-owned, supported or regulated) organizations. Public sector unions have become some of the larger or more influential union in certain area of the world in recent times as private sector union membership has declined sharply. 8 ―Relations with my employees are probably different from those of male managers preceding me,‖ she says, ―I know what it‘s like to have to call and say my kid got the mumps so I won‘t be coming in. I have a more flexible style – not soft, just more understanding. ‖(para.3) Meaning: She said that she was perhaps different from the previous male managers in relation with the employees because she knew what it meant when someone had to make a phone call telling her that he or she wouldn‘t go to work due to the illness of their child. She added that she was more flexible and understanding but not weaker in terms of working style. Meaning beyond words: In a broad sense, female bosses are better than make bosses in boss-employee relations because they are more understanding and tend to show more consideration to their employees. preccde: vt.(fml) happen or exist before sth. or sb. or come before sth. else in a series 先于…(发 生或存在) A planning session at 11:30 will precede the lunch discussion. 11:30 召开计划会议,随后是午餐 讨论。

9 . The man who is Monica‘s assistant agrees, ‖She tends to delegate more and is always looking for a consensus. People are happy and flourish because they have an input into decisions and they are not mere bystanders; their energies areharnessed. On the other hand, consensus takes longer. ‖(para.3) Meaning: The man who is Monica‘s assistant holds the same opinion that she usually gives people more rights and is always seeking agreement. Since people have their voice heard in decision-making and are not playing the role of a witness only, they feel happy and successful. In this way, their energies are utilized. However it takes more time to reach an agreement. Meaning beyond words: Again, female bosses would seek more accommodation and agreement than male bosses, which helps to bring employees‘ initiative into full play.

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Flourish: vt 1) develop well and be successful 繁荣;兴旺;成功 Honesty is one of the bases of any good relationship and no real relationship can flourish without it. 诚信是任何良好关系的基础之一,离开它没有一种真正的关系能蓬勃发展。

2) grow well and be very healthy 茁壮成长 Very few plants will flourish without enough water. 没有足够的水,极少有植物能茁壮成长。

Harness vt. Get control of sth. in order to use it for a particular purpose 利用;控制 The private business sector was to be harnessed to stabilize and to increase local employment. 私 营企业将被用来稳定和增加当地就业。

10. So, are the differencesymbolic or real? Plausible studies suggest that men are typically hierarchical, goal-oriented and feel entitled. Women, by contrast, manage diplomatically, and share power. (para.4) Meaning: So, the question is whether the differences between male and female managers are representative or real? According to acceptable studies, men like to seek social status, work for goals and be given authority. On the other hand, women manage with skill and flexibility and like to share authority. Meaning beyond word: In terms of management skill, this part highlights the differences between male and female bosses. The plausible reasons may possibly be traced to the respective character traits of both sexes. Symbolic: a. important but not having any real effect 象征的;象征性的 People threw flowers into the river between the two countries as a symbolic act of brotherhood. 人们把花扔进两国间的那条界河,这象征着两国之间的兄弟情义。

Plausible: a reasonable and likely to be true 可能正确的;有道理的 A more plausible explanation would seem to de that people are fed up with the conservative government.一个更合理的解释似乎是人们已厌倦了保守党政府。

hierarchical: a dividing people or things into levels of importance 按等级划分 A hierarchical structure merely defines who is in charge of what and is accountable to whom. 按等级划分的结构仅仅能定义谁负责什么和谁对谁负责。

diplomatic: a 1) dealing with people politely and skillfully without upsetting them 讲究手腕的;灵活变通的 He managed to beat me at every argument as he was more than my match in diplomatic shrewdness.他成功的击败了我的每一个论点,因为他比我更灵活变通。

2) relating to or involving the work of diplomats 外交的;从事外交工作的 To avoid a possible invasion by its neighbor, the country is seeking help through diplomatic channels.为了避免其邻国可能的入侵,该国正在寻求通过外交途径获得帮助。

diplomatically: ad.讲究手腕地;灵活变通地;外交地 You can say it diplomatically and with love by telling your kids the reasons why you had to cancel the plan for a party.你可以灵活地,满怀爱心地告诉你的孩子为什么你不得不取消聚会计划。

NoteGoal-oriented is a compound adjective. A goal-oriented person or team works hard to achieve good results in the tasks that they have been given; a goal-oriented plan or activity is based on a number of things that must be achieved. The word oriented means giving a lot of time, effort and attention to one particular thing. It can be combined with different nouns to derive

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different meanings such as family-oriented and export-oriented. 11 That point of view is often challenged and argued. Some proclaim that men and women of similar backgrounds, experience and aspirations basically manage in the same way. (para.4) Meaning: The real differences between male and female managers often spark arguments. Some people declare that generally speaking, men and women of similar backgrounds, experience and ambitions manage in the same way. 12. This view is echoed by younger women, especially those who have encountered little gender discrimination. That was certainly the lesson for Nicole.(para.4) Meaning: This view is agreed upon by young women, especially those who have seldom been treated unfairly. Nicole certainly learned a lesson from her experience. Meaning beyond word: The implication is that men and women de manage differently. Only young women who have never encountered gender discrimination would assume there is no difference between male and female managers. Nicole‘s personal experience would serve as a lesson for young women. Discrimination: n.[U] the practice of treating one person or group differently from another in an unfair way 歧视 Though I face discrimination as a female, I will never give in to pressure to stop trying my best to succeed. 虽然作为女性我受歧视, 可是我绝不会屈服于压力, 我会尽最大的努力来取得成功。

13. When her father died of a hearted attack, she was an employee at a petroleum products export company. She quit and took over her family‘s 160-acre fruit farm in 5t.David‘s County. (para.4) Meaning: When her father died due to a heart attack, Nicole stopped working for an export company of petroleum products and took control of her father‘s 160-acre fruit farm in St. David‘s County. export : n.[U] the business of selling and sending goods to other countries 出口 They are now manufacturing more goods for export.他们现在正在生产更多的产品以供出口。

v. sell goods to another country 出口 Their flowers are exported around the world.他们的花卉出口到世界各地。

take over: take control of sth. 接管;接任;接受 In the event of strike, the army will take over the responsibility for fighting the fire. 万一发生罢 工,军队将接管灭火的责任。

NOTEThis is also a figurative use of ―fighting the fires‖, which means‖ to disperse the strike ‖. 14. On her first day in the field, a worker called her ―darling ‖. ―He was trying to test me. I was shaking with anger,‖ says Nicole, now 34. ―I stood erect and said ,‖ You wouldn‘t have called my father darling and you‘re not going to take that liberty with me. If you do, I‘ll fire you.‖ (para.4) Meaning beyond words: Nicole‘s personal story about how one of her workers addressed her on her first day in the field depicts gender discrimination-based disrespect: Men would instinctively think they are superior to women, so the male worker didn‘t show the appropriate respect to his boss, Nicole.

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